The implantationof a foreign body into a patient results on the activation of an innate immune response. This response is initiated by macrophages and, after an initial inflammatory state can be either resolved or sustained in the time leading to implant rejection. Macrophages contribute to the process by expressing and releasing a series of cytokines that can be considered as pro-inflammatory (M1 phenotype)or pro-regenerative (M2 phenotype) orchestrating the immune response. Thus, it becomes essential to design implant materials that can guide macrophage polarization towards a pro-regenerative phenotype that enables tissue formation.

At BioSmarTE we investigate the material parameters (chemistry, mechanical, topographycal) in 2D and 3D that promote the polarization of macrophages towards the different phenotypes and extrapolate it to our designer scaffolds.